Beginner's Guide to Watch Movements: Quartz, Automatic and Mechanical

Today, watch movements are either made in-house or sourced from manufacturers. Although in-house watch movements are becoming more popular among more prominent brands, more affordable watch brands still use mass-produced movements. Unbeknownst to many of us watch wearers, three different manufacturers make the majority of movements: ETA, Miyota, and Ronda. Watches that use one of these manufacturers' movements often rename and modify them to appear as if they were made in-house (most commonly embossing their logo onto the rotor). 

Let's talk more about each of these movement manufacturers:


Known by many as the Swatch subsidiary, ETA is Switzerland’s largest movement maker, with countless small and major brands relying on them since 1859. 

Some popular movements by ETA are:


A three-hand automatic movement with a date display and 38 hours of power reserve. [Learn more about this movement here]

ETA 2824
ETA 2824-2 Image Credit: Perrin Watch Parts


Despite its more expensive price range, ETA 2892 has large central rotor bearings and is flatter than the 2824-2. Twenty-one jewels ball bearings help reduce friction while adding aesthetic value to the watch. [Learn more about this movement here]

ETA 2892
ETA 2892 Image Credit: Perrin Watch Parts

Valjoux 7750 / ETA 7750

The most popular mechanical chronograph classic movement. [Learn more about this movement here]

Valjoux 7750
Valjoux 7750 Chronograph Image Credit: gearpatrol

The first two digits of the model number categorize the movement family, and the next two digits indicate any additional complications. For example, 2836-2 offers a day and date function, while 2801-2 has no date display. 

ETA Movements are typically available in grades of refinement, in ascending order to the highest, and the most luxurious finishes are standard, elaborated, top, and chronometer. Sometimes, it even comes with enhanced precision or a chronometer certificate. 

Standard (adjusted in two positions and the highest variation of +/- 30 seconds per day)

Elaborated (adjusted in three positions, an average rate of +/- 5 seconds per day)*

Top (adjusted in five positions, an average rate of +/- 4 seconds per day)*

Chronometer (must meet strict COSC standards with a maximum variation of +/- 5 seconds per day). 

Keep a lookout for these grades whenever you are looking at ETA movements.

*The Elaborated and Top grades can vary by +/- 15 seconds per day. When you consider these are gears measuring time, to be off by this little is quite impressive.



Found within watches from well-known brands - ranging from elegant, sporty timepieces to stylish fashion accessories to luxurious models, Ronda is one of the world’s largest manufacturers of mechanical and precision electronic quartz watch movements full of innovative design.

Ronda Header Image

Known for the precision in their Swiss Quartz Watches, Ronda combines manual craftsmanship and process automation to deliver exceptional quality and innovative products. Ronda’s efficient ISO 9001 quality control system ensures that every movement meets the most rigorous standards in design and quality terms. 

Some of the popular movements by Ronda:

Ronda Mecano R150

With its innovative and fresh design, the 11.5-inch R150 made its debut at Baselworld 2016. Used mainly by Luxury watch brands, the R150 is not one for the faint of heart. [Learn more about the movement here]

Ronda R150

Ronda 708 

Used in our flagship Tidal Moonphase, the Ronda 708 - an analog quartz watch movement with moonphase and date features, is the ideal movement for it. With a high average battery life span of 5 years and a -10/+20 accuracy per month, Ronda 708 serves as a reliable movement for an everyday timepiece. 

Close up of Tidal Moonphase
Close-Up of Tidal Moonphase Image Credit: KeepTheTime
Ronda Movements
Ronda Movement
Exploded View of Ronda 708
Exploded view of Ronda 708 Image Credit: Ronda
There are a plethora of factories that watchmakers can source for their movements, be it in-house or third-party manufacturers. However, our Sekoni team has consolidated a list of notable manufacturers and their movements in this article to help you better understand your watch's pricing and whether they are as reliable as their claims.


Established in the 1950s, Sellita didn't become an independent and self-marketing Swiss movement manufacturer until 2003. Interestingly, Sellita used to produce movements from ETA prototypes. Since the associated patents expired, their bestselling Sellita SW 200 is the improved version of ETA 2824-2. The SW 300 was designed based on the ETA 2892, and the SW 500 is a replica of Valjoux 7750. 

Sellita vs ETA
ETA 2824 Rival Clones Image Credit: Worn and Wound
ETA and Sellita Blueprint Comparison
ETA vs Sellita Image Credit: Professional Watches
Furthermore, the same four quality grades at ETA are also found in Sellita to provide the perfect replacement for ETA movements.
Sellita Factory External Image
Sellita Factory on the Outside Image Credit: Horologii
Sellita Factory Internal
Sellita Factory on the Outside Image Credit: Esquire

Though Sellita’s movements are not the original ETA components, their functionality and reliability are on par. However, movements are not in constant (and reliable) supply, leading to some watch manufacturers only offering ETA or Sellita. According to Professional Watches, with increased innovation and development, Sellita’s movements are becoming closer and closer to ETA’s movements.



One of the few fully integrated watch manufacturers, Seiko is Japan’s prominent maker of watches, clocks, and time. Seiko’s movements are also the heartbeat of other affordable mid-range automatic watches brands due to their accurate timekeeping.

One of Seiko’s subsidiaries is Time Module (TMI). Unknown to many, TMI distributes Seiko movements to third parties under designations that make identification of Seiko movements in watches more challenging. TMI’s bestseller is probably the NH35 or the 4R35 in Seiko models. 


The NH35 is cost-effective and all-encompassing with a three-hand automatic movement, date, stop-seconds, and the potential for manual winding. Despite their low costs, they are on par with watches selling at a much higher price.

Seiko Padi Diver Watch with 4R35 Movement
Seiko SRPF09K1 with 4R35 Movement Image Credit: Watchia


Seiko 72S6 Automatic

One of the least expensive automatic movements from Seiko is this 72S6 Automatic. On the Seiko 5 Military SNK809, a transparent caseback allows you to peer into your timepiece and look at the mechanics and jewels.

Seiko 5 Military SNK809
Seiko 5 SNK809 Caseback
Seiko 5 Military SNK809 Image Credit: Monochrome Watches

Citizen Miyota 

It would be accurate to state that Citizen Miyota provides the most common and widely used movement. While known for their quartz movements and Eco-Drive series, it might come as a surprise that Citizen also mass produces mechanical movements.

Some common Citizen Miyota movements:

Caliber 8200 series

Three-hand automatic Miyota 821A or 8215 are options that have stuck around for microbrands and lower-range watches throughout the decades.

Miyota 821a
Miyota 821a via Star Time
Miyota 8215
Miyota 8215 Image Credit: Miyota Movement

Without the stop-seconds mechanism, Citizen Miyota movements face strong competition with Seiko’s signature NH35 movements. 

Miyota 9015 (2009)

Stop-seconds Mechanism. Classier appearance. Power for additional complications. 

Miyota 9015 surpassed its predecessor, meeting higher industry standards.

Miyota 9015
Miyota 9015 Image Credit: Miyota Movement

Known for their beautiful watch movements, Miyota prides itself on their balancing wheel being the apple of your eye. The exquisite balance wheel moves steadily, the finest metal mechanical parts and its intricate design reflects the high quality blueprint behind this outstanding movement.



For the longest time, Chinese-made movements have not been the most desirable due to often being poorly constructed replicas of Swiss movements. However, with rapid improvements in their manufacturing capabilities and improved quality control, Chinese watch movements from Tianjin Seagull are beginning to win the hearts of watch enthusiasts. Tianjin Seagull, one of the world’s most significant mechanical movement manufacturing company, contribute a quarter of global production (as of 2018) at an affordable price range.

Some of the popular movements by Seagull:


Both Seagull’s models and those of young brands like Baltic Watch have had success in the West with this retro movement.

ST1901 Movement in Clear Caseback
Aramar Long Beach Racing Chronograph Value with Seagull ST19 Movement Image Credit: Monochrome Watches
Seagull 1963 Chronograph
Seagull 1963 Chronograph Image Credit: WatchReview Blog


This hand-wound movement is similar to Unitas/ETA 6497, making it an affordable substitute. [Learn more about the movement here]

 Seagull ST36

Swiss Technology Production (STP)

Following ETA’s footsteps, STP - a Fossil subsidiary, has developed its business model beyond quartz movement for fashion watches to mechanical movements for third parties. 

Some common STP movements:


The STP1-11 automatic mechanical movement could easily fit anywhere the ETA 2824-2 or the Sellita SW200 would - making it a strong competitor and substitute for them.

DevilFox with STP1-11 Movement
DevilFox uses STP1-11 automatic movement Image Credit: Microbrand Watch World


Many Zodiac watches carry STP movements, and pricing is in a comfortable range of $1000 for the excellent quality and performance.

Zodiac Watch with ST3-13 Movement


Zodiac Jetomatic Watch Image Credit: ABlogToWatch


If you have ever seen an “open heart” view of the balance wheel, you would understand the beauty of looking at the watch's movement through the crystal. [Learn more about the movement here]

STP5-15 Movement
STP5-15 Movement via Grail Watch Reference
Von Doren Grandmaster Watch
Van Doren Grandmaster Watch via The Collector

At only 15 years in the making, STP does not offer the prestige and value of the historical watch movement makers. However, STP produces high-quality movements with little human interference to ensure absolute precision.

1 comment

  • Mark S Doughty

    Nice, straightforward breakdown of the most widely used, popular and reliable watch movements available today – thanks.

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